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Canadian Journal of Cardiology

The Impact of Dietary Changes and Dietary Supplements on Lipid Profile

  • Jingbo Huang
    Affiliations
    Healthy Heart Program, St. Paul's Hospital-Burrard Building 180–1081, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
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  • Jiri Frohlich
    Affiliations
    Healthy Heart Program, St. Paul's Hospital-Burrard Building 180–1081, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

    Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, St. Paul's Hospital-Burrard Building 180–1081, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
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  • Andrew P. Ignaszewski
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author: Dr Andrew P. Ignaszewski, Healthy Heart Program, St. Paul's Hospital-Burrard Building 180-1081, Vancouver, British Columbia V6Z 1Y6, Canada
    Affiliations
    Healthy Heart Program, St. Paul's Hospital-Burrard Building 180–1081, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

    Department of Cardiology, St. Paul's Hospital-Burrard Building 180–1081, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    Search for articles by this author

      Abstract

      With a growing number of dietary interventions that claim to improve lipid profile, it is important to ensure that these claims are evidence based. The objective of this study was to make recommendations for dietary regimens by analyzing their effectiveness and the level of evidence. We searched MEDLINE as well as the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for nutritional studies. Meta-analyses and randomized controlled trials published in English and including data on the effect on blood lipid levels were used. Randomized controlled trials were included if they were at least 4 weeks in duration and had a minimum of 50 participants. We identified 22 different dietary interventions and reviewed 136 studies published between January 1990 and December 2009 that met our inclusion criteria. Our literature review showed that to improve lipid profile, the following regimens can be recommended fully: Mediterranean and Portfolio diets; low-fat diet; diet high in soy protein, fibre, or phytosterols; whole grain foods, and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation. The consumption of nuts, a diet high in carbohydrates and protein, green tea, and red wine, as well as the supplementation with policosanol and red yeast rice extract, can be considered for improvement of the lipid profile, while the supplements of guggulipid, garlic, chromium, vitamin C, magnesium-pyridoxal-phosphate-glutamate, tocotrienols, and absorbitol cannot be recommended.

      Résumé

      En raison du nombre croissant d'interventions diététiques qui prétendent améliorer le profil lipidique, il est important de s'assurer que ces affirmations soient basées sur des données probantes. L'objectif de cette étude était de faire des recommandations sur les régimes alimentaires en analysant leur efficacité et le niveau de preuve. Nous avons cherché des études nutritionnelles aussi bien dans MEDLINE que dans les revues systématiques de la base de données Cochrane. Des métaanalyses et des essais cliniques aléatoires publiés en anglais et incluant des données des effets sur les niveaux lipidiques sanguins étaient utilisés. Les essais cliniques aléatoires étaient inclus s'ils étaient d'au moins quatre semaines et s'ils comportaient un minimum de 50 participants. Nous avons trouvé 22 interventions diététiques différentes et revu 136 études publiées entre janvier 1990 et décembre 2009 qui ont répondu à nos critères d'inclusion. Notre revue de la littérature a montré que pour améliorer le profil lipidique, les régimes suivants peuvent tous être recommandés : les diètes méditerranéenne et Portfolio; le régime hypolipidique; le régime riche en protéines de soya, les fibres et les phytostérols; les aliments à grains entiers et la supplémentation en acides gras oméga-3. La consommation de noix, un régime riche en glucides et en protéines, le thé vert et le vin rouge, de même que la supplémentation en policosanol et l'extrait de levure de riz rouge peuvent être considérés dans l'amélioration du profil lipidique, tandis que les suppléments de guggulipides, d'ail, de chrome, de vitamine C, de glutamate de pyridoxal-5'-phosphate de magnésium, de tocotriénols et d'absorbitol ne peuvent pas être recommandés.
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