Canadian Journal of Cardiology

The 2012 Canadian Cardiovascular Society Heart Failure Management Guidelines Update: Focus on Acute and Chronic Heart Failure

Published:December 03, 2012DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cjca.2012.10.007

      Abstract

      The 2012 Canadian Cardiovascular Society Heart Failure (HF) Guidelines Update provides management recommendations for acute and chronic HF. In 2006, the Canadian Cardiovascular Society HF Guidelines committee first published an overview of HF management. Since then, significant additions to and changes in many of these recommendations have become apparent. With this in mind and in response to stakeholder feedback, the Guidelines Committee in 2012 has updated the overview of both acute and chronic heart failure diagnosis and management. The 2012 Update also includes recommendations, values and preferences, and practical tips to assist the medical practitioner manage their patients with HF.

      Résumé

      La mise à jour 2012 des Linges directrices sur l'insuffisance cardiaque (IC) de la Société canadienne de cardiologie fournit des recommandations sur la prise en charge de l'IC aiguë et de l'IC chronique. En 2006, le comité des lignes directrices sur l'IC de la Société canadienne de cardiologie a publié pour la première fois un aperçu de la prise en charge de l'IC. Depuis lors, des ajouts et des changements importants à plusieurs de ces recommandations sont devenus nécessaires. À cet égard et en réponse aux commentaires des parties prenantes, le comité des lignes directrices a mis à jour en 2012 l'aperçu du diagnostic et de la prise en charge de l'IC aiguë et l'IC chronique. La mise à jour 2012 inclut également des recommandations, des valeurs et des préférences, ainsi que des conseils pratiques pour aider le praticien à prendre en charge ses patients ayant une IC.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      References

        • Guyatt G.H.
        • Oxman A.D.
        • Vist G.E.
        • et al.
        GRADE: an emerging consensus on rating quality of evidence and strength of recommendations.
        BMJ. 2008; 336: 924-926
        • McCormack J.P.
        • Loewen P.
        Adding “value” to clinical practice guidelines.
        Can Fam Physician. 2007; 53: 1326-1327
        • Adams Jr, K.F.
        • Fonarow G.C.
        • Emerman C.L.
        • et al.
        Characteristics and outcomes of patients hospitalized for heart failure in the United States: rationale, design, and preliminary observations from the first 100,000 cases in the Acute Decompensated Heart Failure National Registry (ADHERE).
        Am Heart J. 2005; 149: 209-216
        • Arnold J.M.
        • Liu P.
        • Demers C.
        • et al.
        Canadian Cardiovascular Society consensus conference recommendations on heart failure 2006: diagnosis and management.
        Can J Cardiol. 2006; 22: 23-45
        • Arnold J.M.
        • Howlett J.G.
        • Dorian P.
        • et al.
        Canadian Cardiovascular Society Consensus Conference recommendations on heart failure update 2007: prevention, management during intercurrent illness or acute decompensation, and use of biomarkers.
        Can J Cardiol. 2007; 23: 21-45
        • Nohria A.
        • Tsang S.W.
        • Fang J.C.
        • et al.
        Clinical assessment identifies hemodynamic profiles that predict outcomes in patients admitted with heart failure.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003; 41: 1797-1804
        • Kociol R.D.
        • Pang P.S.
        • Gheorghiade M.
        • Fonarow G.C.
        • O'Connor C.M.
        • Felker G.M.
        Troponin elevation in heart failure prevalence, mechanisms, and clinical implications.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010; 56: 1071-1078
        • Maisel A.S.
        • Krishnaswamy P.
        • Nowak R.M.
        • et al.
        Rapid measurement of B-type natriuretic peptide in the emergency diagnosis of heart failure.
        N Engl J Med. 2002; 347: 161-167
        • Moe G.W.
        BNP in the diagnosis and risk stratification of heart failure.
        Heart Fail Monit. 2005; 4: 116-122
        • Moe G.W.
        • Howlett J.
        • Januzzi J.L.
        • Zowall H.
        N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide testing improves the management of patients with suspected acute heart failure: primary results of the Canadian prospective randomized multicenter IMPROVE-CHF study.
        Circulation. 2007; 115: 3103-3110
        • Baggish A.L.
        • Siebert U.
        • Lainchbury J.G.
        • et al.
        A validated clinical and biochemical score for the diagnosis of acute heart failure: the ProBNP Investigation of Dyspnea in the Emergency Department (PRIDE) Acute Heart Failure Score.
        Am Heart J. 2006; 151: 48-54
        • Steinhart B.
        • Thorpe K.E.
        • Bayoumi A.M.
        • Moe G.
        • Januzzi Jr, J.L.
        • Mazer C.D.
        Improving the diagnosis of acute heart failure using a validated prediction model.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009; 54: 1515-1521
        • Park J.H.
        • Balmain S.
        • Berry C.
        • Morton J.J.
        • McMurray J.J.
        Potentially detrimental cardiovascular effects of oxygen in patients with chronic left ventricular systolic dysfunction.
        Heart. 2010; 96: 533-538
        • Gray A.
        • Goodacre S.
        • Newby D.E.
        • Masson M.
        • Sampson F.
        • Nicholl J.
        Noninvasive ventilation in acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema.
        N Engl J Med. 2008; 359: 142-151
        • Gray A.
        • Goodacre S.
        • Seah M.
        • Tilley S.
        Diuretic, opiate and nitrate use in severe acidotic acute cardiogenic pulmonary oedema: analysis from the 3CPO trial.
        QJM. 2010; 103: 573-581
        • Peacock W.F.
        • Hollander J.E.
        • Diercks D.B.
        • Lopatin M.
        • Fonarow G.
        • Emerman C.L.
        Morphine and outcomes in acute decompensated heart failure: an ADHERE analysis.
        Emerg Med J. 2008; 25: 205-209
        • Felker G.M.
        • Lee K.L.
        • Bull D.A.
        • et al.
        Diuretic strategies in patients with acute decompensated heart failure.
        N Engl J Med. 2011; 364: 797-805
        • Brater D.C.
        Diuretic therapy.
        N Engl J Med. 1998; 339: 387-395
        • Wilson J.R.
        • Reichek N.
        • Dunkman W.B.
        • Goldberg S.
        Effect of diuresis on the performance of the failing left ventricle in man.
        Am J Med. 1981; 70: 234-239
        • Gardtman M.
        • Waagstein L.
        • Karlsson T.
        • Herlitz J.
        Has an intensified treatment in the ambulance of patients with acute severe left heart failure improved the outcome?.
        Eur J Emerg Med. 2000; 7: 15-24
        • Ducharme A.
        • Doyon O.
        • White M.
        • Rouleau J.L.
        • Brophy J.M.
        Impact of care at a multidisciplinary congestive heart failure clinic: a randomized trial.
        CMAJ. 2005; 173: 40-45
        • Kiyingi A.
        • Field M.J.
        • Pawsey C.C.
        • Yiannikas J.
        • Lawrence J.R.
        • Arter W.J.
        Metolazone in treatment of severe refractory congestive cardiac failure.
        Lancet. 1990; 335: 29-31
        • van Vliet A.A.
        • Donker A.J.
        • Nauta J.J.
        • Verheugt F.W.
        Spironolactone in congestive heart failure refractory to high-dose loop diuretic and low-dose angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor.
        Am J Cardiol. 1993; 71: 21A-28A
        • Cotter G.
        • Metzkor E.
        • Kaluski E.
        • et al.
        Randomised trial of high-dose isosorbide dinitrate plus low-dose furosemide versus high-dose furosemide plus low-dose isosorbide dinitrate in severe pulmonary oedema.
        Lancet. 1998; 351: 389-393
        • Publication Committee for the VMAC Investigators (Vasodilatation in the Management of Acute CHF)
        Intravenous nesiritide vs nitroglycerin for treatment of decompensated congestive heart failure: a randomized controlled trial.
        JAMA. 2002; 287 ([erratum in 2002;288:577]): 1531-1540
        • O'Connor C.M.
        • Starling R.C.
        • Hernandez A.F.
        • et al.
        Effect of nesiritide in patients with acute decompensated heart failure.
        N Engl J Med. 2011; 365: 32-43
        • Mullens W.
        • Abrahams Z.
        • Francis G.S.
        • et al.
        Sodium nitroprusside for advanced low-output heart failure.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008; 52: 200-207
        • Cleland J.G.
        • Freemantle N.
        • Coletta A.P.
        • Clark A.L.
        Clinical trials update from the American Heart Association: REPAIR-AMI, ASTAMI, JELIS, MEGA, REVIVE-II, SURVIVE, and PROACTIVE.
        Eur J Heart Fail. 2006; 8: 105-110
        • Cuffe M.S.
        • Califf R.M.
        • Adams Jr, K.F.
        • et al.
        Short-term intravenous milrinone for acute exacerbation of chronic heart failure: a randomized controlled trial.
        JAMA. 2002; 287: 1541-1547
        • Felker G.M.
        • Benza R.L.
        • Chandler A.B.
        • et al.
        Heart failure etiology and response to milrinone in decompensated heart failure: results from the OPTIME-CHF study.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003; 41: 997-1003
        • Ezekowitz J.A.
        • Bakal J.A.
        • Kaul P.
        • Westerhout C.M.
        • Armstrong P.W.
        Acute heart failure in the emergency department: short and long-term outcomes of elderly patients with heart failure.
        Eur J Heart Fail. 2008; 10: 308-314
        • Jondeau G.
        • Neuder Y.
        • Eicher J.C.
        • et al.
        B-CONVINCED: Beta-blocker CONtinuation Vs. INterruption in patients with Congestive heart failure hospitalizED for a decompensation episode.
        Eur Heart J. 2009; 30: 2186-2192
        • Costanzo M.R.
        • Guglin M.E.
        • Saltzberg M.T.
        • et al.
        Ultrafiltration versus intravenous diuretics for patients hospitalized for acute decompensated heart failure.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007; 49: 675-683
        • Bart B.A.
        • Goldsmith S.R.
        • Lee K.L.
        • et al.
        Ultrafiltration in decompensated heart failure with cardiorenal syndrome.
        N Engl J Med. 2012; 367: 2296-2304
        • Gheorghiade M.
        • Gattis W.A.
        • O'Connor C.M.
        • et al.
        Effects of tolvaptan, a vasopressin antagonist, in patients hospitalized with worsening heart failure: a randomized controlled trial.
        JAMA. 2004; 291: 1963-1971
        • Schrier R.W.
        • Gross P.
        • Gheorghiade M.
        • et al.
        Tolvaptan, a selective oral vasopressin V2-receptor antagonist, for hyponatremia.
        N Engl J Med. 2006; 355: 2099-2112
        • Konstam M.A.
        • Gheorghiade M.
        • Burnett Jr, J.C.
        • et al.
        Effects of oral tolvaptan in patients hospitalized for worsening heart failure: the EVEREST Outcome Trial.
        JAMA. 2007; 297: 1319-1331
        • Cecconi M.
        • Reynolds T.E.
        • Al-Subaie N.
        • Rhodes A.
        Haemodynamic monitoring in acute heart failure.
        Heart Fail Rev. 2007; 12: 105-111
        • Marik P.E.
        Pulmonary artery catheterization and esophageal doppler monitoring in the ICU.
        Chest. 1999; 116: 1085-1091
        • Lee D.S.
        • Schull M.J.
        • Alter D.A.
        • et al.
        Early deaths in patients with heart failure discharged from the emergency department: a population-based analysis.
        Circ Heart Fail. 2010; 3: 228-235
        • Kelder J.C.
        • Cramer M.J.
        • van W.J.
        • et al.
        The diagnostic value of physical examination and additional testing in primary care patients with suspected heart failure.
        Circulation. 2011; 124: 2865-2873
        • Mant J.
        • Doust J.
        • Roalfe A.
        • et al.
        Systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysis of diagnosis of heart failure, with modelling of implications of different diagnostic strategies in primary care.
        Health Technol Assess. 2009; 13 (iii): 1-207
        • Owan T.E.
        • Redfield M.M.
        Epidemiology of diastolic heart failure.
        Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2005; 47: 320-332
        • Hildebrandt P.
        • Collinson P.O.
        • Doughty R.N.
        • et al.
        Age-dependent values of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide are superior to a single cut-point for ruling out suspected systolic dysfunction in primary care.
        Eur Heart J. 2010; 31: 1881-1889
        • Kirkpatrick J.N.
        • Vannan M.A.
        • Narula J.
        • Lang R.M.
        Echocardiography in heart failure: applications, utility, and new horizons.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007; 50: 381-396
        • Rudski L.G.
        • Lai W.W.
        • Afilalo J.
        • et al.
        Guidelines for the echocardiographic assessment of the right heart in adults: a report from the American Society of Echocardiography endorsed by the European Association of Echocardiography, a registered branch of the European Society of Cardiology, and the Canadian Society of Echocardiography.
        J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2010; 23: 685-713
        • Wijns W.
        • Kolh P.
        • Danchin N.
        • et al.
        Guidelines on myocardial revascularization.
        Eur Heart J. 2010; 31: 2501-2555
        • Schwitter J.
        • Arai A.E.
        Assessment of cardiac ischaemia and viability: role of cardiovascular magnetic resonance.
        Eur Heart J. 2011; 32: 799-809
        • The Criteria Committee of the New York Heart Association
        Nomenclature and Criteria for Diagnosis of Diseases of the Heart and Great Vessels.
        9th Ed. Little, Brown, Boston1994
        • Hogg K.
        • Swedberg K.
        • McMurray J.
        Heart failure with preserved left ventricular systolic function; epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and prognosis.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004; 43: 317-327
        • Vasan R.S.
        • Benjamin E.J.
        • Levy D.
        Congestive heart failure with normal left ventricular systolic function.
        Arch Intern Med. 1996; 156: 146-157
        • Meta-analysis Global Group in Chronic Heart Failure (MAGGIC)
        The survival of patients with heart failure with preserved or reduced left ventricular ejection fraction: an individual patient data meta-analysis.
        Eur Heart J. 2011; 33: 1750-1757
        • Yusuf S.
        • Pfeffer M.A.
        • Swedberg K.
        • et al.
        Effects of candesartan in patients with chronic heart failure and preserved left-ventricular ejection fraction: the CHARM-Preserved Trial.
        Lancet. 2003; 362: 777-781
        • Cleland J.G.
        • Tendera M.
        • Adamus J.
        • Freemantle N.
        • Polonski L.
        • Taylor J.
        The perindopril in elderly people with chronic heart failure (PEP-CHF) study.
        Eur Heart J. 2006; 27: 2338-2345
        • Massie B.M.
        • Carson P.E.
        • McMurray J.J.
        • et al.
        Irbesartan in patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction.
        N Engl J Med. 2008; 359: 2456-2467
        • Hogg K.
        • McMurray J.
        The treatment of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (“diastolic heart failure”).
        Heart Fail Rev. 2006; 11: 141-146
        • Hung M.J.
        • Cherng W.J.
        • Kuo L.T.
        • Wang C.H.
        Effect of verapamil in elderly patients with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction as a cause of congestive heart failure.
        Int J Clin Pract. 2002; 56: 57-62
      1. Effects of enalapril on mortality in severe congestive heart failure.
        N Engl J Med. 1987; 316: 1429-1435
      2. Effect of enalapril on survival in patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fractions and congestive heart failure.
        N Engl J Med. 1991; 325: 293-302
        • Kober L.
        • Torp-Pedersen C.
        • Carlsen J.E.
        • et al.
        A clinical trial of the angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor trandolapril in patients with left ventricular dysfunction after myocardial infarction.
        N Engl J Med. 1995; 333: 1670-1676
        • Pfeffer M.A.
        • Braunwald E.
        • Moye L.A.
        • et al.
        Effect of captopril on mortality and morbidity in patients with left ventricular dysfunction after myocardial infarction.
        N Engl J Med. 1992; 327: 669-677
      3. Effect of ramipril on mortality and morbidity of survivors of acute myocardial infarction with clinical evidence of heart failure.
        Lancet. 1993; 342: 821-828
        • Pfeffer M.A.
        • McMurray J.J.
        • Velazquez E.J.
        • et al.
        Valsartan, captopril, or both in myocardial infarction complicated by heart failure, left ventricular dysfunction, or both.
        N Engl J Med. 2003; 349: 1893-1906
        • Granger C.B.
        • McMurray J.J.
        • Yusuf S.
        • et al.
        Effects of candesartan in patients with chronic heart failure and reduced left-ventricular systolic function intolerant to angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors: the CHARM-Alternative trial.
        Lancet. 2003; 362: 772-776
        • Cohn J.N.
        • Tognoni G.
        A randomized trial of the angiotensin-receptor blocker valsartan in chronic heart failure.
        N Engl J Med. 2001; 345: 1667-1675
        • Pitt B.
        • Remme W.
        • Zannad F.
        • et al.
        Eplerenone, a selective aldosterone blocker, in patients with left ventricular dysfunction after myocardial infarction.
        N Engl J Med. 2003; 348: 1309-1321
        • Zannad F.
        • McMurray J.J.
        • Krum H.
        • et al.
        Eplerenone in patients with systolic heart failure and mild symptoms.
        N Engl J Med. 2011; 364: 11-21
        • Pitt B.
        • Zannad F.
        • Remme W.J.
        • et al.
        The effect of spironolactone on morbidity and mortality in patients with severe heart failure.
        N Engl J Med. 1999; 341: 709-717
        • McMurray J.
        • Cohen-Solal A.
        • Dietz R.
        • et al.
        Practical recommendations for the use of ACE inhibitors, beta-blockers, aldosterone antagonists and angiotensin receptor blockers in heart failure: putting guidelines into practice.
        Eur J Heart Fail. 2005; 7: 710-721
      4. The Cardiac Insufficiency Bisoprolol Study II (CIBIS-II): a randomised trial.
        Lancet. 1999; 353: 9-13
      5. Effect of metoprolol CR/XL in chronic heart failure: Metoprolol CR/XL Randomised Intervention Trial in Congestive Heart Failure (MERIT-HF).
        Lancet. 1999; 353: 2001-2007
        • Packer M.
        • Bristow M.R.
        • Cohn J.N.
        • et al.
        The effect of carvedilol on morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic heart failure.
        N Engl J Med. 1996; 334: 1349-1355
        • Packer M.
        • Coats A.J.
        • Fowler M.B.
        • et al.
        Effect of carvedilol on survival in severe chronic heart failure.
        N Engl J Med. 2001; 344: 1651-1658
        • Beta-Blocker Evaluation of Survival Trial Investigators
        A trial of the beta-blocker bucindolol in patients with advanced chronic heart failure.
        N Engl J Med. 2001; 344: 1659-1667
        • Krum H.
        • Roecker E.B.
        • Mohacsi P.
        • et al.
        Effects of initiating carvedilol in patients with severe chronic heart failure: results from the COPERNICUS Study.
        JAMA. 2003; 289: 712-718
        • Faris R.
        • Flather M.
        • Purcell H.
        • Henein M.
        • Poole-Wilson P.
        • Coats A.
        Current evidence supporting the role of diuretics in heart failure: a meta analysis of randomised controlled trials.
        Int J Cardiol. 2002; 82: 149-158
      6. The effect of digoxin on mortality and morbidity in patients with heart failure.
        N Engl J Med. 1997; 336: 525-533
        • Hood Jr, W.B.
        • Dans A.L.
        • Guyatt G.H.
        • Jaeschke R.
        • McMurray J.J.
        Digitalis for treatment of congestive heart failure in patients in sinus rhythm: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        J Card Fail. 2004; 10: 155-164
        • Cohn J.N.
        • Johnson G.
        • Ziesche S.
        • et al.
        A comparison of enalapril with hydralazine-isosorbide dinitrate in the treatment of chronic congestive heart failure.
        N Engl J Med. 1991; 325: 303-310
        • Taylor A.L.
        • Ziesche S.
        • Yancy C.
        • et al.
        Combination of isosorbide dinitrate and hydralazine in blacks with heart failure.
        N Engl J Med. 2004; 351: 2049-2057
        • Tavazzi L.
        • Maggioni A.P.
        • Marchioli R.
        • et al.
        Effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in patients with chronic heart failure (the GISSI-HF trial): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
        Lancet. 2008; 372: 1223-1230
        • Fox K.
        • Ford I.
        • Steg P.G.
        • Tendera M.
        • Robertson M.
        • Ferrari R.
        Heart rate as a prognostic risk factor in patients with coronary artery disease and left-ventricular systolic dysfunction (BEAUTIFUL): a subgroup analysis of a randomised controlled trial.
        Lancet. 2008; 372: 817-821
        • Swedberg K.
        • Komajda M.
        • Bohm M.
        • et al.
        Ivabradine and outcomes in chronic heart failure (SHIFT): a randomised placebo-controlled study.
        Lancet. 2010; 376: 875-885
        • Cleland J.G.
        • Findlay I.
        • Jafri S.
        • et al.
        The Warfarin/Aspirin Study in Heart failure (WASH): a randomized trial comparing antithrombotic strategies for patients with heart failure.
        Am Heart J. 2004; 148: 157-164
        • Homma S.
        • Thompson J.L.
        • Pullicino P.M.
        • et al.
        Warfarin and aspirin in patients with heart failure and sinus rhythm.
        N Engl J Med. 2012; 366: 1859-1869
        • Amabile C.M.
        • Spencer A.P.
        Keeping your patient with heart failure safe: a review of potentially dangerous medications.
        Arch Intern Med. 2004; 164: 709-720
        • Feenstra J.
        • Grobbee D.E.
        • Remme W.J.
        • Stricker B.H.
        Drug-induced heart failure.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 1999; 33: 1152-1162
        • Mamdani M.
        • Juurlink D.N.
        • Lee D.S.
        • et al.
        Cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors versus non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and congestive heart failure outcomes in elderly patients: a population-based cohort study.
        Lancet. 2004; 363: 1751-1756
        • Howlett J.G.
        • McKelvie R.S.
        • Arnold J.M.
        • et al.
        Canadian Cardiovascular Society Consensus Conference guidelines on heart failure, update 2009: diagnosis and management of right-sided heart failure, myocarditis, device therapy and recent important clinical trials.
        Can J Cardiol. 2009; 25: 85-105
        • Bardy G.H.
        • Lee K.L.
        • Mark D.B.
        • et al.
        Amiodarone or an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator for congestive heart failure.
        N Engl J Med. 2005; 352: 225-237
        • Moss A.J.
        • Hall W.J.
        • Cannom D.S.
        • et al.
        Improved survival with an implanted defibrillator in patients with coronary disease at high risk for ventricular arrhythmia.
        N Engl J Med. 1996; 335: 1933-1940
        • Hohnloser S.H.
        • Kuck K.H.
        • Dorian P.
        • et al.
        Prophylactic use of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator after acute myocardial infarction.
        N Engl J Med. 2004; 351: 2481-2488
        • Steinbeck G.
        • Andresen D.
        • Seidl K.
        • et al.
        Defibrillator implantation early after myocardial infarction.
        N Engl J Med. 2009; 361: 1427-1436
        • Bristow M.R.
        • Saxon L.A.
        • Boehmer J.
        • et al.
        Cardiac-resynchronization therapy with or without an implantable defibrillator in advanced chronic heart failure.
        N Engl J Med. 2004; 350: 2140-2150
        • Cleland J.G.
        • Daubert J.C.
        • Erdmann E.
        • et al.
        The effect of cardiac resynchronization on morbidity and mortality in heart failure.
        N Engl J Med. 2005; 352: 1539-1549
        • Dupont M.
        • Rickard J.
        • Baranowski B.
        • et al.
        Differential echocardiographic response to cardiac resynchronization therapy and clinical outcomes according to QRS morphology and QRS duration.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012; 60: 592-598
        • Hsu J.C.
        • Solomon S.D.
        • Bourgoun M.
        • et al.
        Predictors of super-response to cardiac resynchronization therapy and associated improvement in clinical outcome: the MADIT-CRT (Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial With Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy) study.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012; 59: 2366-2373
        • Moss A.J.
        • Hall W.J.
        • Cannom D.S.
        • et al.
        Cardiac-resynchronization therapy for the prevention of heart-failure events.
        N Engl J Med. 2009; 361: 1329-1338
        • Sipahi I.
        • Carrigan T.P.
        • Rowland D.Y.
        • Stambler B.S.
        • Fang J.C.
        Impact of QRS duration on clinical event reduction with cardiac resynchronization therapy: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
        Arch Intern Med. 2011; 171: 1454-1462
        • Sipahi I.
        • Chou J.C.
        • Hyden M.
        • Rowland D.Y.
        • Simon D.I.
        • Fang J.C.
        Effect of QRS morphology on clinical event reduction with cardiac resynchronization therapy: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
        Am Heart J. 2012; 163: 260-267
        • Tang A.S.
        • Wells G.A.
        • Talajic M.
        • et al.
        Cardiac-resynchronization therapy for mild-to-moderate heart failure.
        N Engl J Med. 2010; 363: 2385-2395
        • Healey J.S.
        • Hohnloser S.H.
        • Derek V.
        • et al.
        Cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients with permanent atrial fibrillation: results from the resynchronization for ambulatory heart failure trial (RAFT).
        Circ Heart Fail. 2012; 5: 566-570
        • Mamas M.A.
        • Caldwell J.C.
        • Chacko S.
        • Garratt C.J.
        • Fath-Ordoubadi F.
        • Neyses L.
        A meta-analysis of the prognostic significance of atrial fibrillation in chronic heart failure.
        Eur J Heart Fail. 2009; 11: 676-683
        • Wolf P.A.
        • Abbott R.D.
        • Kannel W.B.
        Atrial fibrillation as an independent risk factor for stroke: the Framingham Study.
        Stroke. 1991; 22: 983-988
        • Skanes A.C.
        • Healey J.S.
        • Cairns J.A.
        • et al.
        Focused 2012 update of the Canadian Cardiovascular Society atrial fibrillation guidelines: recommendations for stroke prevention and rate/rhythm control.
        Can J Cardiol. 2012; 28: 125-136
        • Gillis A.M.
        • Verma A.
        • Talajic M.
        • Nattel S.
        • Dorian P.
        Canadian Cardiovascular Society atrial fibrillation guidelines 2010: rate and rhythm management.
        Can J Cardiol. 2011; 27: 47-59
        • Fauchier L.
        • Grimard C.
        • Pierre B.
        • et al.
        Comparison of beta blocker and digoxin alone and in combination for management of patients with atrial fibrillation and heart failure.
        Am J Cardiol. 2009; 103: 248-254
        • Camm A.J.
        • Kirchhof P.
        • Lip G.Y.
        • et al.
        Guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation: the Task Force for the Management of Atrial Fibrillation of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC).
        Eur Heart J. 2010; 31: 2369-2429
        • Khand A.U.
        • Rankin A.C.
        • Martin W.
        • Taylor J.
        • Gemmell I.
        • Cleland J.G.
        Carvedilol alone or in combination with digoxin for the management of atrial fibrillation in patients with heart failure?.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003; 42: 1944-1951
        • Roy D.
        • Talajic M.
        • Nattel S.
        • et al.
        Rhythm control versus rate control for atrial fibrillation and heart failure.
        N Engl J Med. 2008; 358: 2667-2677
        • Deedwania P.C.
        • Singh B.N.
        • Ellenbogen K.
        • Fisher S.
        • Fletcher R.
        • Singh S.N.
        Spontaneous conversion and maintenance of sinus rhythm by amiodarone in patients with heart failure and atrial fibrillation: observations from the veterans affairs congestive heart failure survival trial of antiarrhythmic therapy (CHF-STAT).
        Circulation. 1998; 98: 2574-2579
        • Kober L.
        • Torp-Pedersen C.
        • McMurray J.J.
        • et al.
        Increased mortality after dronedarone therapy for severe heart failure.
        N Engl J Med. 2008; 358: 2678-2687