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Canadian Journal of Cardiology

Epidemiology of Sleep Disturbances and Cardiovascular Consequences

  • Mohammad Badran
    Affiliations
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
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  • Bishr Abu Yassin
    Affiliations
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
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  • Nurit Fox
    Affiliations
    Divisions of Critical Care and Respiratory Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia; Sleep Disorders Program, UBC Hospital; Division of Critical Care Medicine, Providence Health Care, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
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  • Ismail Laher
    Affiliations
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
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  • Najib Ayas
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author: Dr Najib Ayas, Respiratory Division, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2B5, Canada. Tel.: +1-604-875-4122.
    Affiliations
    Divisions of Critical Care and Respiratory Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia; Sleep Disorders Program, UBC Hospital; Division of Critical Care Medicine, Providence Health Care, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
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Published:March 14, 2015DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cjca.2015.03.011

      Abstract

      It is increasingly recognized that disruption of sleep and reduced amounts of sleep can have significant adverse cardiovascular consequences. For example, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common underdiagnosed disorder characterized by recurrent nocturnal asphyxia resulting from repetitive collapse of the upper airway; this leads to repetitive episodes of nocturnal hypoxemia and arousal from sleep. Risk factors for disease include obesity, increased age, male sex, and family history. In epidemiologic studies, OSA appears to be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), and treatment is associated with better outcomes. Habitual short sleep duration is common in today's society. In epidemiologic studies, short sleep duration is associated with a number of adverse health effects, including all-cause mortality, weight gain, and incident CVD. Given the links between sleep disorders and adverse health outcomes, obtaining adequate quality and amounts of sleep should be considered a component of a healthy lifestyle, similar to good diet and exercise.

      Résumé

      On reconnaît de plus en plus que les troubles de sommeil et la réduction du nombre d’heures de sommeil peuvent avoir des conséquences indésirables importantes sur la santé cardiovasculaire. Par exemple, l’apnée obstructive du sommeil (AOS), un trouble sous-diagnostiqué fréquent, est caractérisée par la récurrence d’asphyxie nocturne résultant des épisodes répétitifs de collapsus des voies aériennes supérieures et mène à des épisodes répétitifs d’hypoxémie et d’éveil durant le sommeil. Les facteurs de risque de la maladie comprennent l’obésité, l’âge avancé, le sexe masculin et les antécédents familiaux. Dans les études épidémiologiques, l’AOS semble être un facteur de risque indépendant de la maladie cardiovasculaire (MCV), et son traitement est associé à de meilleurs résultats cliniques. Dans la société actuelle, la durée de sommeil habituelle est souvent courte. Dans les études épidémiologiques, une courte durée de sommeil est associée à plusieurs effets néfastes sur la santé, y compris la mortalité toutes causes confondues, la prise de poids et l’incidence des MCV. Étant donné les liens entre les troubles du sommeil et les effets néfastes sur la santé, une qualité et un nombre d’heures de sommeil adéquats devraient être considérés comme une composante d’un mode de vie sain, au même titre qu’un bon régime alimentaire et l’exercice.
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      Linked Article

      • Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Cardiovascular Risk
        Canadian Journal of CardiologyVol. 32Issue 6
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          Badran et al.1 reviewed the association between sleep disturbance and cardiovascular disease (CVD) or cardiovascular risk, with special emphasis on obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and sleep disruption. Their results suggest that obesity, older age, male sex, and family history are common cardiovascular risk factors and that the severity of OSA is inversely associated with sleep duration. The authors mention that more information is required about the treatment effect of OSA (in addition to the effect of lifestyle modifications such as good diet and regular exercise) on the incidence of CVD.
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