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Canadian Journal of Cardiology

Novel Approaches in Primary Cardiovascular Disease Prevention: The HOPE-3 Trial Rationale, Design, and Participants' Baseline Characteristics

      Abstract

      Background

      Cholesterol and blood pressure (BP) can be effectively and safely lowered with statin drugs and BP-lowering drugs, reducing major cardiovascular (CV) events by 20%-30% within 5 years in high-risk individuals. However, there are limited data in lower-risk populations. The Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation-3 (HOPE-3) trial is evaluating whether cholesterol lowering with a statin drug, BP lowering with low doses of 2 antihypertensive agents, and their combination safely reduce major CV events in individuals at intermediate risk who have had no previous vascular events and have average cholesterol and BP levels.

      Methods

      A total of 12,705 women 65 years or older and men 55 years or older with at least 1 CV risk factor, no known CV disease, and without any clear indication or contraindication to the study drugs were randomized to rosuvastatin 10 mg/d or placebo and to candesartan/hydrochlorothiazide 16/12.5 mg/d or placebo (2 × 2 factorial design) and will be followed for a mean of 5.8 years. The coprimary study outcomes are the composite of CV death, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), and nonfatal stroke and the composite of CV death, nonfatal MI, nonfatal stroke, resuscitated cardiac arrest, heart failure, and arterial revascularization.

      Results

      Participants were recruited from 21 countries in North America, South America, Europe, Asia, and Australia. Mean age at randomization was 66 years and 46% were women.

      Conclusions

      The HOPE-3 trial will provide new information on cholesterol and BP lowering in intermediate-risk populations with average cholesterol and BP levels and is expected to inform approaches to primary prevention worldwide (HOPE-3 ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00468923).

      Résumé

      Introduction

      Il est possible de faire baisser efficacement et en toute sécurité le cholestérol et la pression artérielle (PA) avec les statines et les antihypertenseurs tout en réduisant de 20 à 30 % les manifestations cardiovasculaires majeures en l’espace de cinq ans chez les personnes à risque élevé. Les données obtenues dans les populations exposées à un risque plus faible sont néanmoins limitées. L’essai HOPE-3 (Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation-3) tâche de déterminer si l’abaissement du cholestérol à l’aide d’une statine, l’abaissement de la pression artérielle à l’aide de deux agents antihypertenseurs administrés à raison d’une faible dose et leur association permettent de réduire en toute sécurité les manifestations cardiovasculaires majeures chez les personnes exposées à un risque intermédiaire qui n’ont pas d’antécédents d’événements vasculaires et dont le taux de cholestérol et la PA se situent dans la moyenne.

      Méthodes

      Au total, 12 705 femmes et hommes, les unes âgées de 65 ans et plus et les autres de 55 ans et plus, qui présentent au moins un facteur de risque cardiovasculaire et qui n’ont pas de maladie cardiovasculaire connue ni aucune indication ou contre-indication claires aux médicaments à l’étude, ont été répartis aléatoirement pour recevoir de la rosuvastatine à raison de 10 mg par jour ou un placebo et l’association candésartan/hydrochlorothiazide à raison de 16/12,5 mg par jour ou un placebo (plan factoriel 2 × 2). Ces patients seront suivis pendant une moyenne de 5,8 ans. Les principaux paramètres d’évaluation de l’étude combinent le décès d’origine cardiovasculaire, l’infarctus du myocarde non mortel et l’AVC non mortel d’une part, et le décès d’origine cardiovasculaire, l’infarctus du myocarde non mortel, l’AVC non mortel, la réanimation après arrêt cardiaque, l’insuffisance cardiaque et la revascularisation artérielle d’autre part.

      Résultats

      Les participants ont été recrutés dans 21 pays situés en Amérique du Nord, en Amérique du Sud, en Europe, en Asie et en Australie. L’âge moyen au moment de la répartition aléatoire était de 66 ans, et 46 % des sujets étaient des femmes.

      Conclusions

      L’essai HOPE-3 fournira de nouveaux renseignements sur l’abaissement du taux de cholestérol et de la PA dans des populations exposées à un risque intermédiaire dont le taux de cholestérol et la PA se situent dans la moyenne. Il devrait également fournir des données à l’appui des stratégies de prévention primaire mises en place partout dans le monde (HOPE-3 ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00468923).
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      Linked Article

      • Erratum
        Canadian Journal of CardiologyVol. 32Issue 12
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          In the article, “Novel Approaches in Primary Cardiovascular Disease Prevention: The HOPE-3 Trial Rationale, Design, and Participants’ Baseline Characteristics” by Lonn et al., published in the March issue (Can J Cardiol 2016;32:311-8), there is an error on page 315.
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