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Canadian Journal of Cardiology

Shared Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer: Implications for Preventive Health and Clinical Care in Oncology Patients

Published:April 23, 2016DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cjca.2016.04.008

      Abstract

      The cardiovascular toxicity of cancer therapy has raised awareness of the importance of heart disease in cancer care among oncologists and cardiologists, leading to the new interdisciplinary field of cardio-oncology. Evidence is accumulating to suggest that risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease are also related to an increased incidence of cancer and excess cancer mortality. We review the epidemiologic evidence that smoking, obesity, poor diet, and inactivity can cause both heart disease and cancer. The importance of cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular risk factors in adversely affecting oncological outcomes and leading to increased cancer mortality is discussed. Cardiotoxicity prediction tools that incorporate cardiac disease and risk factors are described. Raising awareness about shared risk factors for cancer and heart disease may result in more effective advocacy to promote healthy lifestyle changes through the combined efforts of the historically separate specialties of cardiology and oncology.

      Résumé

      En raison de la toxicité cardiovasculaire des traitements anticancéreux, les oncologues et les cardiologues ont pris conscience de l’importance de la cardiopathie dans les soins anticancéreux, ce qui a donné naissance à un nouveau champ interdisciplinaire, la cardio-oncologie. Les données laissant supposer que les facteurs de risque associés à la maladie cardiovasculaire soient aussi liés à une fréquence accrue de cancer et à un taux excessif de mortalité liée au cancer sont de plus en plus nombreuses. Nous avons examiné les données épidémiologiques probantes indiquant que l’usage du tabac, l’obésité, une mauvaise alimentation et la sédentarité peuvent causer la cardiopathie et le cancer. Nous traitons de l’effet délétère d’importance de la maladie cardiovasculaire et des facteurs de risque cardiovasculaires sur l’issue des traitements anticancéreux ainsi que du risque accru connexe de décès par cancer. Une description des outils permettant de prédire la cardiotoxicité, qui tiennent compte de la cardiopathie et des facteurs de risque, est présentée. La prise de conscience relative aux facteurs de risque communs du cancer et de la cardiopathie se traduira peut-être par une sensibilisation plus efficace de l’importance d’adopter un mode de vie sain grâce aux efforts combinés de deux spécialités, la cardiologie et l’oncologie, considérées depuis toujours comme distinctes.
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