Canadian Journal of Cardiology
Review| Volume 37, ISSUE 9, P1340-1352, September 2021

Patient-Reported Outcomes in Cardiovascular Trials


      Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are reports of a person's health status that provide a global perspective of patient well-being. PROs can be classified into 4 primary domains: global, mental, physical, and social health. In this descriptive review, we focus on how PROs can be used in cardiac clinical trials, with an emphasis on cardiac surgical trials for patients with coronary heart disease and heart failure. We also highlight ongoing challenges and provide specific suggestions and novel opportunities to advance cardiac clinical trials. Current challenges include the long-term measurement of PROs in clinical trials beyond 1 year, inconsistency in the choice of the outcome measures among studies, and the lack of measurement of PROs across multiple domains. Opportunities for advancement include measuring PROs using consumer health informatics tools, including returning information back to participants in formats that they can understand using visualization. Future opportunities include quantifying cohort-specific minimal clinically important differences for PROs.


      Les résultats rapportés par les patients sont des rapports sur l’état de santé d'une personne qui fournissent une vue d'ensemble du bien-être du patient. Ces résultats peuvent être classés en quatre domaines principaux : santé générale, santé mentale, santé physique et santé sociale. Dans cette revue descriptive, nous nous attardons à la façon dont les résultats rapportés par les patients peuvent être utilisés dans les essais cliniques sur les maladies, particulièrement dans les essais portant sur les interventions chirurgicales chez des patients atteints de coronaropathie et cardiaque. Nous soulignons également les défis constants qui doivent être relevés et fournissons des suggestions précises et de nouvelles possibilités pour faire avancer les essais cliniques sur les maladies cardiaques. Les défis actuels comprennent la mesure à long terme des résultats rapportés par les patients dans le cadre d'essais cliniques qui s’étendent au-delà de 1 an, l'hétérogénéité dans le choix des mesures des résultats parmi les études, et l'absence de mesure des résultats rapportés par les patients dans de nombreux domaines. Les possibilités d'avancement comprennent la mesure des résultats rapportés par les patients à l'aide d'outils informatiques pour la santé des consommateurs, qui prévoient notamment le renvoi de renseignements aux participants dans des formats qu'ils peuvent comprendre faisant appel à des représentations visuelles. Les possibilités futures comprennent la quantification des différences minimales cliniquement importantes propres à une cohorte en ce qui a trait aux résultats rapportés par les patients.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Canadian Journal of Cardiology
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Shuster JJ
        Review: Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews for interventions, Version 5.1.0, published 3/2011. Julian P.T. Higgins and Sally Green.
        Editors. Res Synth Methods. 2011; 2: 126-130
        • Lavallee DC
        • Chenok KE
        • Love RM
        • et al.
        Incorporating patient-reported outcomes into health care to engage patients and enhance care.
        Health Aff (Millwood). 2016; 35: 575-582
        • Field J
        • Holmes MM
        • Newell D
        PROMs data: can it be used to make decisions for individual patients? A narrative review.
        Patient Relat Outcome Meas. 2019; 10: 233-241
        • Moskowitz JT
        • Cheung EO
        • Snowberg KE
        • et al.
        Randomized controlled trial of a facilitated online positive emotion regulation intervention for dementia caregivers.
        Health Psychol. 2019; 38: 391-402
        • Lipton RB
        • Tepper SJ
        • Reuter U
        • et al.
        Erenumab in chronic migraine: patient-reported outcomes in a randomized double-blind study.
        Neurology. 2019; 92: e2250-e2260
        • Kelkar AA
        • Spertus J
        • Pang P
        • et al.
        Utility of patient-reported outcome instruments in heart failure.
        JACC Heart Fail. 2016; 4: 165-175
        • Anker SD
        • Agewall S
        • Borggrefe M
        • et al.
        The importance of patient-reported outcomes: a call for their comprehensive integration in cardiovascular clinical trials.
        Eur Heart J. 2014; 35: 2001-2009
      1. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. Clinical Outcome Assessment Compendium. Available at: Accessed January 22, 2021.

        • Reeve BB
        • Wyrwich KW
        • Wu AW
        • et al.
        ISOQOL recommends minimum standards for patient-reported outcome measures used in patient-centered outcomes and comparative effectiveness research.
        Qual Life Res. 2013; 22: 1889-1905
        • Vodicka E
        • Kim K
        • Devine B
        • et al.
        Inclusion of patient-reported outcome measures in registered clinical trials: evidence from Clinicaltrials.Gov (2007-2013).
        Value Health. 2015; 18: A209-A210
        • Lewis EF
        • Claggett BL
        • McMurray JJV
        • et al.
        Health-related quality of life outcomes in PARADIGM-HF.
        Circ Heart Fail. 2017; 10e003430
        • Jones RH
        • Kesler K
        • Phillips 3rd, HR
        • et al.
        Long-term survival benefits of coronary artery bypass grafting and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty in patients with coronary artery disease.
        J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1996; 111: 1013-1025
        • MacMahon KMA
        • Lip GYH
        Psychological factors in heart failure: a review of the literature.
        Arch Intern Med. 2002; 162: 509-516
        • Cella DF
        • Hahn EA
        • Jensen SE
        • et al.
        Patient-Reported Outcomes in Performance Measurement. 97. RTI Press, Research Triangle Park, NC2015
        • Algurén B
        • Coenen M
        • Malm D
        • et al.
        A scoping review and mapping exercise comparing the content of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) across heart disease-specific scales.
        J Patient Rep Outcomes. 2020; 4: 7
        • Bevans M
        • Ross A
        • Cella D
        Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS): efficient, standardized tools to measure self-reported health and quality of life.
        Nursing Outlook. 2014; 62: 339-345
        • Dumanian GA
        • Potter BK
        • Mioton LM
        • et al.
        Targeted muscle reinnervation treats neuroma and phantom pain in major limb amputees: a randomized clinical trial.
        Ann Surg. 2019; 270: 238-246
        • Ghoneim MM
        • O'Hara MW
        Depression and postoperative complications: an overview.
        BMC Surg. 2016; 16: 5
        • Pilkonis PA
        • Choi SW
        • Reise SP
        • et al.
        Item banks for measuring emotional distress from the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®): depression, anxiety, and anger.
        Assessment. 2011; 18: 263-283
        • Kroenke K
        • Spitzer RL
        • Williams JBW
        The PHQ-9: validity of a brief depression severity measure.
        J Gen Intern Med. 2001; 16: 606-613
        • Snaith RP
        The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale.
        Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2003; 1: 29
        • Kyte D
        • Draper H
        • Calvert M
        Patient-reported outcome alerts: ethical and logistical considerations in clinical trials.
        JAMA. 2013; 310: 1229-1230
        • Sackett DL
        Clinician-trialist rounds: 5. Cointervention bias – how to diagnose it in their trial and prevent it in yours.
        Clin Trials. 2011; 8: 440-442
        • Gehi A
        • Haas D
        • Pipkin S
        • Whooley MA
        Depression and medication adherence in outpatients with coronary heart disease: findings from the Heart and Soul Study.
        Arch Intern Med. 2005; 165: 2508-2513
        • Tully PJ
        • Baker RA
        Depression, anxiety, and cardiac morbidity outcomes after coronary artery bypass surgery: a contemporary and practical review.
        J Geriatr Cardiol. 2012; 9: 197
      2. Terrie YC. Identifying and managing depression in transplant patients. Available at: Accessed January 22, 2021.

        • McGrady A
        • McGinnis R
        • Badenhop D
        • Bentle M
        • Rajput M
        Effects of depression and anxiety on adherence to cardiac rehabilitation.
        J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev. 2009; 29: 358-364
        • Rao A
        • Zecchin R
        • Newton PJ
        • et al.
        The prevalence and impact of depression and anxiety in cardiac rehabilitation: a longitudinal cohort study.
        Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2020; 27: 478-489
        • Brocks Y
        • Zittermann A
        • Grisse D
        • et al.
        Adherence of heart transplant recipients to prescribed medication and recommended lifestyle habits.
        Prog Transplant. 2017; 27: 160-166
        • Pinto A
        • Faiz O
        • Davis R
        • Almoudaris A
        • Vincent C
        Surgical complications and their impact on patients’ psychosocial well-being: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        BMJ Open. 2016; 6e007224
        • Piarulli A
        • Chiariello GA
        • Bruno P
        • et al.
        Psychological effects of skin incision size in minimally invasive valve surgery patients.
        Innovations. 2020; 15: 532-540
        • İyigün T
        • Kaya M
        • Gülbeyaz SÖ
        • et al.
        Patient body image, self-esteem, and cosmetic results of minimally invasive robotic cardiac surgery.
        Int J Surg. 2017; 39: 88-94
        • Adib-Hajbaghery M
        • Miranzadeh S
        • Tahmouresi M
        • Azizi-Fini I
        Body image before and after coronary artery bypass graft surgery: comparison and its contributing factors.
        BMC Psychol. 2020; 8: 78
        • Kańtoch MJ
        • Eustace J
        • Collins-Nakai RL
        • et al.
        The significance of cardiac surgery scars in adult patients with congenital heart disease.
        Kardiol Pol. 2006; 64 ([discussion: 57-8]): 51-56
      3. APA PsycNet. Cash TF. Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire. Available at: Accessed January 22, 2021.

        • Garber CE
        • Greaney ML
        • Riebe D
        • et al.
        Physical and mental health-related correlates of physical function in community dwelling older adults: a cross sectional study.
        BMC Geriatr. 2010; 10: 6
      4. Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement System-Physical Function. Health Measures. Available at: Accessed January 22, 2021.

        • Ware Jr., JE
        SF-36 Health Survey Update.
        in: Maruish M The Use of Psychological Testing for Treatment Planning and Outcome Assessment. 3. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, New Jersey2004: 693-718
        • Stokes JW
        • Wanderer JP
        • McEvoy MD
        Significant discrepancies exist between clinician assessment and patient self-assessment of functional capacity by validated scoring tools during preoperative evaluation.
        Perioper Med (Lond). 2016; 5: 18
      5. Charles EJ, Mehaffey JH, Hawkins RB, et al. Effect of cardiac surgery on one-year patient-reported outcomes: a prospective cohort study [e-pub ahead of print]. Ann Thorac Surg doi:10.1016/j.athoracsur.2020.09.061, accessed August 9, 2021.

        • Gibbons RJ
        • Chatterjee K
        • Daley J
        • et al.
        ACC/AHA/ACP–ASIM guidelines for the management of patients with chronic stable angina: executive summary and recommendations: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association task force on practice guidelines (committee on Management of Patients with Chronic Stable Angina).
        Circulation. 1999; 99: 2829-2848
        • Lee JH
        • Chuu K
        • Spertus J
        • et al.
        Patients overestimate the potential benefits of elective percutaneous coronary intervention.
        Mo Med. 2012; 109: 79-84
        • Bayman EO
        • Parekh KR
        • Keech J
        • et al.
        Preoperative patient expectations of postoperative pain are associated with moderate to severe acute pain after VATS.
        Pain Med. 2019; 20: 543-554
        • Borsody JM
        • Courtney M
        • Taylor K
        • Jairath N
        Using self-efficacy to increase physical activity in patients with heart failure.
        Home Healthc Nurse. 1999; 17: 113-118
        • Goel K
        • O'Leary JM
        • Barker CM
        • et al.
        Clinical implications of physical function and resilience in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement.
        J Am Heart Assoc. 2020; 9e017075
        • Wyler von Ballmoos MC
        Minimally invasive mitral valve surgery to maximally benefit patients-what is the key to success today and tomorrow?.
        Ann Transl Med. 2020; 8: 162
        • Suri RM
        • Antiel RM
        • Burkhart HM
        • et al.
        Quality of life after early mitral valve repair using conventional and robotic approaches.
        Ann Thorac Surg. 2012; 93: 761-769
        • Klop IDG
        • van Putte BP
        • Kloppenburg GTL
        • et al.
        Comparing quality of life and postoperative pain after limited access and conventional aortic valve replacement: design and rationale of the LImited access aortic valve replacement (LIAR) trial.
        Contemp Clin Trials Commun. 2021; 21100700
        • O'Neill D
        • Forman DE
        The importance of physical function as a clinical outcome: assessment and enhancement.
        Clin Cardiol. 2020; 43: 108-117
        • Parker RD
        • Adams J
        Activity restrictions and recovery after open chest surgery: understanding the patient's perspective.
        Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent). 2008; 21: 421-425
        • Chaturvedi RK
        • Blaise M
        • Verdon J
        • et al.
        Cardiac surgery in octogenarians: long-term survival, functional status, living arrangements, and leisure activities.
        Ann Thorac Surg. 2010; 89: 805-810
        • Rosman L
        • Cahill JM
        • McCammon SL
        • Sears SF
        Sexual health concerns in patients with cardiovascular disease.
        Circulation. 2014; 129: e313-e316
      6. Jönsson M, Berg SK, Missel M, Palm P. Am I going to die now? Experiences of hospitalisation and subsequent life after being diagnosed with aortic dissection. Scand J Caring Sci 2021;35:929-36.

        • Bonnet D
        • Berger F
        • Jokinen E
        • Kantor PF
        • Daubeney PEF
        Ivabradine in children with dilated cardiomyopathy and symptomatic chronic heart failure.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017; 70: 1262-1272
        • Varni JW
        • Burwinkle TM
        • Seid M
        The PedsQLTM as a pediatric patient-reported outcome: reliability and validity of the PedsQLTM Measurement Model in 25,000 children.
        Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res. 2005; 5: 705-719
        • DeWalt DA
        • Gross HE
        • Gipson DS
        • et al.
        PROMIS(®) pediatric self-report scales distinguish subgroups of children within and across six common pediatric chronic health conditions.
        Qual Life Res. 2015; 24: 2195-2208
        • Uzark K
        • Jones K
        • Slusher J
        • et al.
        Quality of life in children with heart disease as perceived by children and parents.
        Pediatrics. 2008; 121: e1060-e1067
        • Chen C
        • Rosenthal DN
        • Chen S
        • et al.
        Clinician perspectives on the potential utility of a patient reported outcomes measure for pediatric heart failure.
        J Heart Lung Transplant. 2019; 38: S203
        • Knowles RL
        • Tadic V
        • Hogan A
        • et al.
        Self-reported health experiences of children living with congenital heart defects: including patient-reported outcomes in a national cohort study.
        PLoS One. 2016; 11e0159326
        • Manrique-Garcia E
        • Sidorchuk A
        • Hallqvist J
        • Moradi T
        Socioeconomic position and incidence of acute myocardial infarction: a meta-analysis.
        J Epidemiol Community Health. 2011; 65: 301-309
        • Khaing W
        • Vallibhakara SA
        • Attia J
        • McEvoy M
        • Thakkinstian A
        Effects of education and income on cardiovascular outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2017; 24: 1032-1042
        • Umberson D
        • Montez JK
        Social relationships and health: a flashpoint for health policy.
        J Health Soc Behav. 2010; 51: S54-S66
        • der Laan DM van
        • DM van der Laan
        • Elders PJM
        • et al.
        The impact of cardiovascular medication use on patients’ daily lives: a cross-sectional study.
        Int J Clin Pharm. 2018; 40: 412-420
        • Mohammed A
        • Mohammed MA
        • Moles RJ
        • Chen TF
        Medication-related burden and patients’ lived experience with medicine: a systematic review and metasynthesis of qualitative studies.
        BMJ Open. 2016; 6e010035
        • Modica M
        • Ferratini M
        • Torri A
        • et al.
        Quality of life and emotional distress early after left ventricular assist device implant: a mixed-method study.
        Artif Organs. 2015; 39: 220-227
        • Tosto C
        • Adamo L
        • Craddock H
        • et al.
        Relationship between device acceptance and patient-reported outcomes in left ventricular assist device (LVAD) recipients.
        Sci Rep. 2019; 9: 10778
        • Han J
        • Trumble DR
        Cardiac assist devices: early concepts, current technologies, and future innovations.
        Bioengineering (Basel). 2019; 6: 18
        • Abshire M
        • Prichard R
        • Cajita M
        • DiGiacomo M
        • Dennison Himmelfarb C
        Adaptation and coping in patients living with an LVAD: a metasynthesis.
        Heart Lung. 2016; 45: 397-405
        • Aburjania N
        • Sherazi S
        • Tchantchaleishvili V
        • Alexis JD
        • Hay CM
        Stopping conventional showering decreases pseudomonas infections in left ventricular assist device patients.
        Int J Artif Organs. 2017; 40: 282-285
        • Brouwers C
        • Denollet J
        • Caliskan K
        • et al.
        Psychological distress in patients with a left ventricular assist device and their partners: an exploratory study.
        Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2015; 14: 53-62
        • Lopez V
        • Sek Ying C
        • Poon CY
        • Wai Y
        Physical, psychological and social recovery patterns after coronary artery bypass graft surgery: a prospective repeated measures questionnaire survey.
        Int J Nurs Stud. 2007; 44: 1304-1315
        • Moore SM
        A comparison of women's and men's symptoms during home recovery after coronary artery bypass surgery.
        Heart Lung. 1995; 24: 495-501
        • Hwang TJ
        • Rabheru K
        • Peisah C
        • Reichman W
        • Ikeda M
        Loneliness and social isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic.
        Int Psychogeriatr. 2020; 32: 1217-1220
        • Littlefield C
        • Abbey S
        • Fiducia D
        • et al.
        Quality of life following transplantation of the heart, liver, and lungs.
        Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 1996; 18: 36S-47S
        • Tarabeih M
        • Bokek-Cohen Y ‘arit
        • Azuri P
        Health-related quality of life of transplant recipients: a comparison between lung, kidney, heart, and liver recipients.
        Qual Life Res. 2020; 29: 1631-1639
        • Christensen AV
        • Juel K
        • Ekholm O
        • et al.
        Significantly increased risk of all-cause mortality among cardiac patients feeling lonely.
        Heart. 2020; 106: 140-146
        • Russell DW
        UCLA Loneliness Scale (Version 3): reliability, validity, and factor structure.
        J Pers Assess. 1996; 66: 20-40
      7. Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System-Social Isolation. HealthMeasures. Available at: Accessed August 9, 2021.

        • Calvert M
        • Kyte D
        • Mercieca-Bebber R
        • et al.
        Guidelines for inclusion of patient-reported outcomes in clinical trial protocols: the SPIRIT-PRO extension.
        JAMA. 2018; 319: 483-494
        • Kyte D
        • Retzer A
        • Ahmed K
        • et al.
        Systematic evaluation of patient-reported outcome protocol content and reporting in cancer trials.
        J Natl Cancer Inst. 2019; 111: 1170-1178
        • Calvert M
        • Blazeby J
        • Altman DG
        • et al.
        Reporting of patient-reported outcomes in randomized trials: the CONSORT PRO extension.
        JAMA. 2013; 309: 814-822
      8. Takousi MG, Schmeer S, Manaras I, et al. Health-related quality of life after coronary revascularization: a systematic review with meta-analysis. Hellenic J Cardiol 2016;57:223-37.

        • Schmidt-RioValle J
        • Abu Ejheisheh M
        • Membrive-Jiménez MJ
        • et al.
        Quality of life after coronary artery bypass surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020; 17: 8439
        • Charles EJ
        • Mehaffey JH
        • Hawkins RB
        • et al.
        Meaningful patient-centered outcomes 1 year following cardiac surgery.
        Ann Surg. 2021; 273: e247-e254
        • Abdallah MS
        • Wang K
        • Magnuson EA
        • et al.
        Quality of life after surgery or DES in patients with 3-vessel or left main disease.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017; 69: 2039-2050
        • Baron SJ
        • Chinnakondepalli K
        • Magnuson EA
        • et al.
        Quality-of-life after everolimus-eluting stents or bypass surgery for left-main disease: results from the EXCEL trial.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017; 70: 3113-3122
        • Bishawi M
        • Hattler B
        • Almassi GH
        • et al.
        Preoperative factors associated with worsening in health-related quality of life following coronary artery bypass grafting in the Randomized On/Off Bypass (ROOBY) trial.
        Am Heart J. 2018; 198: 33-38
        • Houlind K
        • Kjeldsen BJ
        • Madsen SN
        • et al.
        On-pump versus off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery in elderly patients: results from the Danish on-pump versus off-pump randomization study.
        Circulation. 2012; 125: 2431-2439
        • Magnuson EA
        • Farkouh ME
        • Fuster V
        • et al.
        Cost-effectiveness of percutaneous coronary intervention with drug eluting stents versus bypass surgery for patients with diabetes mellitus and multivessel coronary artery disease: results from the FREEDOM trial.
        Circulation. 2013; 127: 820-831
        • Abdallah MS
        • Wang K
        • Magnuson EA
        • et al.
        Quality of life after PCI vs CABG among patients with diabetes and multivessel coronary artery disease: a randomized clinical trial.
        JAMA. 2013; 310: 1581-1590
        • Calvert MJ
        • Freemantle N
        • Cleland JGF
        The impact of chronic heart failure on health-related quality of life data acquired in the baseline phase of the CARE-HF study.
        Eur J Heart Fail. 2005; 7: 243-251
        • Spertus JA
        • Jones PG
        • Maron DJ
        • et al.
        Health status after invasive or conservative care in coronary and advanced kidney disease.
        N Engl J Med. 2020; 382: 1619-1628
        • Rahimi K
        • Malhotra A
        • Banning AP
        • Jenkinson C
        Outcome selection and role of patient reported outcomes in contemporary cardiovascular trials: systematic review.
        BMJ. 2010; 341: c5707
        • Prinsen CAC
        • Mokkink LB
        • Bouter LM
        • et al.
        COSMIN guideline for systematic reviews of patient-reported outcome measures.
        Qual Life Res. 2018; 27: 1147-1157
        • Mokkink LB
        • de Vet HCW
        • Prinsen CAC
        • et al.
        COSMIN risk of bias checklist for systematic reviews of patient-reported outcome measures.
        Qual Life Res. 2018; 27: 1171-1179
      9. COSMIN. Available at: Accessed March 29, 2021.

        • Prinsen CAC
        • Vohra S
        • Rose MR
        • et al.
        How to select outcome measurement instruments for outcomes included in a “Core Outcome Set” – a practical guideline.
        Trials. 2016; 17: 449
        • Mercieca-Bebber R
        • Palmer MJ
        • Brundage M
        • et al.
        Design, implementation and reporting strategies to reduce the instance and impact of missing patient-reported outcome (PRO) data: a systematic review.
        BMJ Open. 2016; 6e010938
        • Fairclough DL
        • Peterson HF
        • Chang V
        Why are missing quality of life data a problem in clinical trials of cancer therapy?.
        Stat Med. 1998; 17: 667-677
      10. COMET Initiative. Available at: Accessed March 29, 2021.

        • Marshall KH
        • D'Udekem Y
        • Sholler GF
        • et al.
        Health-related quality of life in children, adolescents, and adults with a Fontan circulation: a meta-analysis.
        J Am Heart Assoc. 2020; 9e014172
        • Goldsmith KA
        • Dyer MT
        • Buxton MJ
        • Sharples LD
        Mapping of the EQ-5D index from clinical outcome measures and demographic variables in patients with coronary heart disease.
        Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2010; 8: 54
        • Wailoo A
        • Alava MH
        • Pudney S
        • et al.
        An international comparison of EQ-5D-5L and EQ-5D-3L for use in cost-effectiveness analysis.
        Value Health. 2021; 24: 568-574
        • Perrotti A
        • Ecarnot F
        • Monaco F
        • et al.
        Quality of life 10 years after cardiac surgery in adults: a long-term follow-up study.
        Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2019; 17: 88
        • Gaudino M
        • Alexander JH
        • Bakaeen FG
        • et al.
        Randomized comparison of the clinical outcome of single versus multiple arterial grafts: the ROMA trial-rationale and study protocol.
        Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2017; 52: 1031-1040
        • Carvalho K
        • Gali B
        • LeBlanc J
        • Matzke LA
        • Watson PH
        A permission to contact platform is an efficient and cost-effective enrollment method for a biobank to create study-specific research cohorts.
        Biopreserv Biobank. 2021; 19: 250-257
        • Tamargo J
        • Rosano G
        • Walther T
        • et al.
        Gender differences in the effects of cardiovascular drugs.
        Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Pharmacother. 2017; 3: 163-182
        • Taylor BN
        • Reading Turchioe M
        • Goyal P
        • Masterson Creber RM
        Using mHealth to capture patient-reported sexual satisfaction in heart failure.
        Circulation. 2020; 142: A17004
        • Bakken S
        • Marden S
        • Arteaga SS
        • et al.
        Behavioral interventions using consumer information technology as tools to advance health equity.
        Am J Public Health. 2019; 109: S79-S85
        • Tirado M
        Role of mobile health in the care of culturally and linguistically diverse US populations.
        Perspect Health Inf Manag. 2011; 8: 1e
        • Weldring T
        • Smith SMS
        Article commentary: patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs).
        Health Serv Insights. 2013; 6 (HSI.S11093)
        • Turchioe MR
        • Grossman LV
        • Myers AC
        • et al.
        Visual analogies, not graphs, increase patients’ comprehension of changes in their health status.
        J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2020; 27: 677-689
        • Rudin RS
        • Bates DW
        • MacRae C
        Accelerating innovation in health IT.
        N Engl J Med. 2016; 375: 815-817
        • Masterson Creber RM
        • Grossman LV
        • Ryan B
        • et al.
        Engaging hospitalized patients with personalized health information: a randomized trial of an inpatient portal.
        J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2019; 26: 115-123
        • Palmer MJ
        • Mercieca-Bebber R
        • King M
        • et al.
        A systematic review and development of a classification framework for factors associated with missing patient-reported outcome data.
        Clin Trials. 2018; 15: 95-106
        • Baik D
        • Reading M
        • Jia H
        • Grossman LV
        • Masterson Creber R
        Measuring health status and symptom burden using a web-based mHealth application in patients with heart failure.
        Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2019; 18: 325-331
        • Masterson Creber R
        • Chen T
        • Wei C
        • Lee CS
        Brief report: patient activation among urban hospitalized patients with heart failure.
        J Card Fail. 2017; 23: 817-820
        • Grossman LV
        • Feiner SK
        • Mitchell EG
        • Masterson Creber RM
        Leveraging patient-reported outcomes using data visualization.
        Appl Clin Inform. 2018; 9: 565-575
        • Creber RMM
        • Masterson Creber RM
        • Hickey KT
        • Maurer MS
        Gerontechnologies for older patients with heart failure: what is the role of smartphones, tablets, and remote monitoring devices in improving symptom monitoring and self-care management?.
        Curr Cardiovasc Risk Rep. 2016; 10: 30
        • Turchioe MR
        • Myers A
        • Isaac S
        • et al.
        A systematic review of patient-facing visualizations of personal health data.
        Appl Clin Inform. 2019; 10: 751-770
        • Palan S
        • Schitter C—a subject pool for online experiments.
        J Behav Exp Finance. 2018; 17: 22-27
        • McGlothlin AE
        • Lewis RJ
        Minimal clinically important difference: defining what really matters to patients.
        JAMA. 2014; 312: 1342-1343
        • Gheorghiade M
        • De Luca L
        • Fonarow GC
        • et al.
        Pathophysiologic targets in the early phase of acute heart failure syndromes.
        Am J Cardiol. 2005; 96 (11G-7G)
        • Xiong GL
        • Fiuzat M
        • Kuchibhatla M
        • et al.
        Health status and depression remission in patients with chronic heart failure: patient-reported outcomes from the SADHART-CHF trial.
        Circ Heart Fail. 2012; 5: 688-692
        • Bekelman DB
        • Plomondon ME
        • Carey EP
        • et al.
        Primary results of the patient-centered disease management (PCDM) for heart failure study: A randomized clinical trial.
        JAMA Intern Med. 2015; 175: 725-732
        • Solomon SD
        • McMurray JJV
        • Anand IS
        • et al.
        Angiotensin-Neprilysin Inhibition in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction.
        N Engl J Med. 2019; 381: 1609-1620