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Canadian Journal of Cardiology

BALLOON VALVULOPLASTY VERSUS SURGICAL VALVOTOMY FOR CONGENITAL AORTIC STENOSIS: SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND META-ANALYSIS

      BACKGROUND

      The debate between the best therapeutic approach to congenital aortic stenosis is ongoing. Multiple studies have attempted to answer this question without reaching a definitive conclusion. McCrindle et al performed the landmark analysis of the congenital heart surgeon database and they showed equivalent results in the outcome between surgical aortic valvotomy (SAV) versus balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV). Given similar outcomes, many centers preferentially perform BAV due to its minimally invasive nature and faster recovery. Some more recent single-center studies have shown better outcomes with surgical valvotomy; however, their results were attributed to the use of contemporary superior surgical techniques. In this study, we perform a contemporary systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the effects of BAV and SAV on patient morbidity and mortality.

      METHODS AND RESULTS

      We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE from inception to March 2021 for studies comparing balloon aortic valvuloplasty versus surgical commissurotomy for critical congenital AS in patients younger than 18. We performed title and abstract screening, full-text assessment, risk of bias assessment using the CLARITY tool, and data collection independently and in duplicate. We pooled data using the random-effects model and Mantel-Haensel statistical method. We evaluated the overall quality of evidence using the GRADE framework. From a total of 439 studies imported for screening, 12 studies (1214 participants) were included that compared outcomes for balloon aortic valvuloplasty and surgical commissurotomy in the pediatric population. Mortality at 30-day and at longest follow-up was not statistically significant between the two groups (RR 0.66 95% CI [0.34, 1.27] and 0.74 95% CI [0.35, 1.56]. Reintervention favoured surgical repair at the longest follow-up but did not reach statistical significance (RR 1.11 95% CI [0.89, 1.38]). Postprocedural aortic insufficiency was more common after balloon valvotomy but failed to reach statistical significance (RR: 1.5 95% CI 0.99 – 2.99).

      CONCLUSION

      In pediatric patients with congenital AS, surgical commissurotomy did not offer additional advantages over balloon valvotomy. There was a trend toward an increase in post-procedural AI and an increased rate of reintervention with balloon valvotomy. However, the quality of evidence is very low. An appropriately powered large study is required to adequately address the risks and benefits of the two interventions.
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