The impact of biological sex and social determinants of health (gender) on the prevalence
of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors such as diabetes mellitus (DM) may vary by culture
and health systems. In this study, we aimed to elucidate how sex and gender influence
access to care and CV outcomes of individuals with DM across different countries.
METHODS AND RESULTS
Data from the Canadian Community Health Survey (2015-16) (N=109,659, 53.7% Females,
8.4% DM) and the European Health Interview Survey (N=316,333, 51.3% Females, 7.3%
DM), were analyzed. A composite measure of socio-cultural gender was constructed (score
range: 0-1; higher score identifying characteristics traditionally ascribed to women).
The relationship between the gender score, antihyperglycemic care, complications and
hospitalization of individuals with DM was assessed with a logistic regression model.
European countries were stratified based on their Gender Inequality Index (GII); which
quantifies gender disparity and inequity amongst various countries in the world, from
low-GII (GII < 0.077), to medium (GII: 0.077-0.1635) and high (>=0.1635). Characteristics
traditionally ascribe to women (i.e., higher gender score) included greater stress
level, being widowed or divorced, larger household size, higher education, good sense
of belonging to community, and lower income in Canadians; while being divorced or
widowed, having greater household size, lower education and lower income were found
in Europeans. Sex and gender significantly influenced the standard care of patients
with diabetes including periodic glucose and HbA1C monitoring. Canadian diabetic females
were more likely to check their HbA1c (OR: 1.29, 95%CI:1.03-1.6), while European counterparts
were less likely to check their blood sugar (OR: 0.89, 95%CI:0.79-0.99). A higher
gender score in both populations was associated with less frequent monitoring of HbA1C
and blood glucose levels (Table 1). When stratifying by GII, DM patients in countries
with medium and high GII were less likely to check their blood glucose levels compared
to low GII countries (Table1). Additionally, higher gender scores independent of sex
were associated with higher risk of heart disease, stroke and hospitalization in all
countries albeit European countries with medium to high GII, conferred a higher risk
of all complications and hospitalization rates (Table1).
Regardless of biological sex, diabetic individuals with characteristics typically
ascribed to women and those living in countries with greater gender inequality, exhibited
poorer antihyperglycemic care, greater risk of cardiovascular complications, and higher
hospitalization rates. Country-specific gender related factors and gender disparity
must be targeted for improving health status and access to care of patients with DM.