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Canadian Journal of Cardiology

IMPACT OF TRUNCAL VALVE REGURGITATION ON LEFT VENTRICULAR FUNCTION AND GEOMETRY IN COMMON ARTERIAL TRUNK: A CASE-MATCH CONTROLLED STUDY

      BACKGROUND

      Truncal valve insufficiency (TVI) not only is one of the risk factors for death in neonatal primary repair for common arterial trunk (CAT), but also influences long-term left ventricular performance. This study investigates the functional and survival outcomes of CAT repair in patients based on TVI severity.

      METHODS AND RESULTS

      In this single-center retrospective case-matched controlled study, 16 consecutive CAT patients from 2000- 2018 with moderate to severe truncal valve regurgitation (TVR2-3) undergoing primary CAT surgery with truncal valve (TrV) repair were matched to 16 CAT patients with none to mild truncal valve regurgitation (TVR1-0). Survival was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier; reintervention using competing risks; paired tests for ventricular function and geometry, and health status. TVR2-3 group had 11 (69%) patients with moderate TVR and 5 (31%) patients with severe TVI, with operative median age of 7(4 – 19) days. The TVR1-0 group had 3 (19%) patients with none/trivial TVI and 13 (81%) patients with mild TVI, with an operative median age of 132(6– 22) days (p = 0.30). There were no significant differences in preoperative variables between the groups and repair technique as shown in Table 1. There was no significant difference between overall survival and modified Ross heart failure score at median length of follow-up of 9.17 (1.40 – 15.12) years. Rate of surgical TrV reintervention at 5 years postoperative was 8% and 67% for TVR0-1 and TVR2-3, respectively (Stratified Gray's p = 0.005). TVR2-3 experienced greater residual TVI at discharge and 1 year post-repair with severity of TrV dysfunction converging between groups as more patients in TVR0-1 developed mild/moderate TVI over time and TVR2-3 patients underwent reintervention. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was comparable between groups at all time-points, with the exception of postoperative year 1 [TVR0-1: 69(67 – 74)% vs. TVR2-3: 62(59 – 66)% (p = 0.006) Figure 1]. Although not statistically significant, pronounced left ventricular dilatation was seen in the TVR2-3 group (upper quartile, z-score +6) throughout 1-year post-repair. Increasing left ventricular size in TVR2-3 reached statistical significance at 3 (p = 0.001) and 5 years (p = 0.003), but did not impair LVEF.

      CONCLUSION

      There was a greater number of surgical TrV reinterventions (i.e. repair or replacement) in the TVR2-3 population, with two deaths associated with critical residual TVI refractory to reintervention. Progressive left ventricular dilatation in the TVR2-3 group due to residual TVI was well tolerated. Ventricular remodeling did not significantly impact left ventricular function or clinical status.
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