Canadian Journal of Cardiology

Establishing a Minimally Invasive Cardiac Surgery Program

Published:August 03, 2022DOI:


      With safety well established, there is accumulating evidence that minimally invasive cardiac surgery (MICS) has benefits for patients. As a result, there is growth in this subspecialty area of cardiac surgery, and many centers are establishing MICS programs. This article presents a framework and set of principles, which can be used to build a successful MICS program.


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