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Corresponding author: Dr Stephane Noble, Structural Heart Unit, Cardiology Division, Department of Medicine, University Hospitals of Geneva, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland. Tel.: +41-795533149.
An 83-year-old diabetic man underwent transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR)
for symptomatic severe aortic stenosis (mean gradient 51 mm Hg, valve area 0.7 cm2, calcium score: 4560 HU) (Fig. 1A). According to the computed tomography (CT) measurement performed with the use of
Osirix and Trimensio software at 20% and 60% of the cardiac phase (perimeter 83.8
mm at 60% and 84.2 mm at 20%, sinus of Valsalva width > 31 mm) (Fig. 1B) and the presence of a chunk of calcium extending to the outflow tract (Fig. 1, C and D), a Medtronic 34-mm Evolut R transcatheter heart valve (THV) was implanted
transfemorally without predilatation. Considering the residual mean gradient of 19
mm Hg (Fig. 1E) and the presence of the string sign or sign of underexpansion (vertical line along
the valve frame corresponding to an infolding of the frame) (Fig. 1F), postdilatation was performed with the use of a 25-mm Nucleus balloon (Fig. 1G). The infolding persisted, but the final mean gradient was 9 mm Hg (Fig. 1H). Transthoracic echocardiography at discharge showed mild leak and a mean gradient
of 8 mm Hg (Fig. 1I). At 30-day follow-up, CT scan showed highly calcified leaflets behind the valve
frame and persistent frame infolding (Fig. 1, J and K); transesophageal echocardiography (Fig. 1L) and CT scan demonstrated that
the prosthesis has a heart-shape inflow (Fig. 1M). At 3-year follow-up, the patient
was asymptomatic and the echocardiographic control remained unchanged.
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