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Canadian Journal of Cardiology

Impact of Yoga on Global Cardiovascular Risk as an Add-On to a Regular Exercise Regimen in Patients With Hypertension

Published:December 07, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cjca.2022.09.019

      Abstract

      Background

      We aimed to determine whether the addition of yoga to a regular exercise training regimen improves cardiometabolic risk profile.

      Methods

      Sixty individuals with diagnosed hypertension (≥ 140/90 mm Hg for 3 measurements on different days) were recruited in an exercise training program. In addition to aerobic exercise training, participants were randomised into either a yoga or a stretching control group. Participants, over the 3-month intervention regimen, performed 15 minutes of either yoga or stretching in addition to 30 minutes of aerobic exercise training 5 times weekly. Blood pressure, anthropometry, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), glucose, and lipid levels as well as the Framingham and Reynolds Risk Scores were measured.

      Results

      At baseline, there was no difference in age, sex, smoking status, body mass index, blood pressure, heart rate, lipid and glucose levels, and Framingham Risk Score between groups. After the 3-month intervention period, the decrement in systolic and diastolic blood pressures (before vs after stretching: 126 ± 11/76 ± 7 vs 122 ± 11/73 ± 8 mm Hg; before vs after yoga: 130 ± 13/77 ± 10 vs 119 ± 11/69 ± 8 mm Hg) and heart rate was greater (P < 0.001) in the yoga group, with similar decreases in lipid, glucose, and hs-CRP levels and Framingham Risk Score in both groups. Reynolds Risk Score decrement was higher in the yoga vs the control group (absolute reduction −1.2 ± 1.2 vs −0.6 ± 0.8; relative reduction 13.2 ± 11.8% vs 9.3 ± 6.5%; P < 0.05).

      Conclusion

      In patients with hypertension, the practice of yoga incorporated in a 3-month exercise training program was associated with greater improvement in resting blood pressure and heart rate and Reynolds Risk Score compared with stretching.

      Résumé

      Contexte

      Nous avons cherché à déterminer si l’ajout du yoga à un programme d’entraînement physique régulier pouvait améliorer le profil de risque cardiométabolique.

      Méthodologie

      Soixante personnes ayant reçu un diagnostic d’hypertension (trois mesures ≥ 140/90 mmHg prises lors de journées différentes) ont été recrutées pour participer à un programme d’entraînement comprenant, en plus des exercices aérobies au lieu de aérobiques, soit une séance de yoga soit une séance d’étirements (le groupe témoin), les participants étant répartis aléatoirement dans l’un des deux groupes. Sur une période de trois mois, les participants ont effectué 15 minutes de yoga ou d’étirements en plus des 30 minutes d’exercices aérobies au lieu de aérobiques, à raison de cinq fois par semaine. Les paramètres suivants ont été mesurés : pression artérielle, anthropométrie, taux de protéine C-réactive de haute sensibilité (PCR-hs), taux de glucose, taux de lipides et scores de risque de Framingham et de Reynolds.

      Résultats

      Au début de l’étude, il n’y avait aucune différence entre les groupes sur le plan de l’âge, du sexe, du statut tabagique, de l’indice de masse corporelle, de la pression artérielle, de la fréquence cardiaque, des taux de lipides et de glucose ou du score de risque de Framingham. Après la période d’intervention de trois mois, les baisses de la pression artérielle systolique et diastolique (avant vs après les séances d’étirements : 126 ± 11/76 ± 7 vs 122 ± 11/73 ± 8 mmHg; avant vs après les séances de yoga : 130 ± 13/77 ± 10 vs 119 ± 11/69 ± 8 mmHg) et de la fréquence cardiaque étaient plus marquées (P < 0,001) dans le groupe pratiquant le yoga; les diminutions des taux de lipides, de glucose et de PCR-hs et du score de risque de Framingham étaient équivalentes dans les deux groupes. La diminution du score de risque de Reynolds était plus importante dans le groupe pratiquant le yoga que dans le groupe témoin (diminution absolue de −1,2 ± 1,2 vs −0,6 ± 0,8; diminution relative de 13,2 ± 11,8 % vs 9,3 ± 6,5 %; P < 0,05).

      Conclusion

      Chez les patients atteints d’hypertension, la pratique du yoga dans le cadre d’un programme d’entraînement physique de trois mois a été associée à des améliorations de la pression artérielle et de la fréquence cardiaque au repos ainsi que du score de risque de Reynolds supérieures à celles obtenues avec les étirements.
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